Any of the above might make a rewarding study, but I'll stick to apples.
All the Baldwins I've seen this year are on the small side, so I am tasting a medium-sized apple with a saturated blush of cheerful red that mostly covers green yellow. There's russet that is centered around the base, where the calyx is for the most part open; many small light lenticels decorate the skin.
The Baldwins have been through the wars this year and have the scars to proved it. Besides the russet--which also crackles the blush in patches--there's flyspeck and many round smudgy spots, which I take to be the evocatively named sooty blotch. These marks are the same size as hail scars.
Baldwin is a little ribbed, some more than others. It is very firm in the hand.
The flesh is firm, crisp, medium coarse, and light yellow. Baldwin is juicy with a rich, even taste, balanced sweet and tart enlivened by acidity. Older Baldwins are quite palatable too, though mellower, not acid, and less crisp. Cider, trace of pear, and some spice make this worth seeking out in October or later. Some pleasant astringency after the finish.
Baldwin was the most popular New England apple of the Nineteenth Century, widely grown across the country, until the exceptionally cold winter of 1934 killed off many of the trees and Baldwin was replaced by McIntosh in the hearts and mouths of the people. It is still a personal late-season favorite of mine, and West County Cider presses no less than two different varieties of hard cider that are exclusively from this apple (one a bit dryer than the other).
Baldwin was originally called Butters, after the farm where it was found, and Peckers, after the birds that riddled the original tree.
Update: The site of the original Baldwin apple tree is marked by a granite monument.